Pruning is the removal of branches and shoots that obstruct the tree. These may be broken, diseased, dry, frozen, or lying on the ground. You will learn more about How to Pruning of Fruit Trees and Shrubs by Bubgo article.
Why Pruning Is Necessary
Without pruning, the plant will acquire similar shoots: it will grow branches that interfere with pollination, the normal growth of neighboring shoots, and the development and ripening of fruit.
Shoots and broken branches that show signs of disease are hotbeds of infection, and the breakpoints are conduits for bacteria and viruses. Once they are in, plants may die or require lengthy and not always economically reasonable treatment.
Tip: This is an important measure to keep a tree or shrub safe from outbreaks of viral or bacterial infection and to keep the canopy as clean as possible for new shoots and future crops. Remove shoots with signs of disease, broken branches.
Time For Fall Pruning
Sanitary pruning is usually not mass-produced: it does not involve the removal of a large percentage of the crown or shoots. It can be done from September when the leaves are in full bloom. For woody crops, this is from mid-September; for shrubs, this is half a month later. Pruning is best done when the leaves are falling.
The plant enters the first biological stage of dormancy. All biological processes are at a standstill. The plant actually "sleeps" for some time, during which no favorable factors - warm weather, sufficient water, intensive nitrogen nutrition - can "wake it up" and bring it back to active life. After biological dormancy, the plant enters a phase of forced dormancy. At this point, favorable factors come together and the shrub or tree is able to "wake up" and take on a life of its own.
Tip: Do not delay sanitation; we recommend completing it at least 15 days before the onset of a sustained cold spell. Otherwise, shoots may suffer and the plant may weaken. In autumn, plants enter a period of biological dormancy.
Which Fruit Trees And Shrubs Can Be Pruned
Almost any tree or shrub needs to be pruned in the fall. Consider the best times as described above. Consider tree crops of seeds and drupes. After about mid-September, these crops will begin to actively leaf out and enter a period of biological dormancy. If there is an indication that shoots should be pruned, do so.
Tip: Cultivars such as cherries, peaches, and apricots are not recommended for fall work. Removal of diseased branches is best done in March and combined with shaping.
Shrubs will start to lose their leaves after about 10 days: they enter their biological rest period later. Pruning can be done at this time, but it is best not to touch the vines, such as cation and lemongrass. Handle honeysuckle with care. This crop has a very short biological rest period, which is why we see it bloom almost every year in the fall. Honeysuckle tends to bloom too late.
Standards And Regulations For Hygienic Pruning
Pruning at the optimal time: when the plant is in its biologically dormant stage and there is still enough time before the onset of a sustained period of cold and frost.
Tip: It is important not to cut more than 25% of the wood, as this will negatively affect the overwintering performance of the tree or shrub.
If you need to remove most of the wood, prioritize critical areas. For example, you have dry shoots and shoots that have been broken off by the wind. Remove the shoots that have broken off first. These are the areas that are susceptible to infection. Removing dry shoots can be postponed until March.
Always use sharp and clean tools when working. Arm yourself with a garden saw the garden knife, sharp pruners, a ladder, garden varnish, and garden paint. Alcohol and a clean cloth are needed. Moisten the cloth with alcohol. Sanitize the cutting parts of your tools as you move from tree to tree and shrub to shrub to reduce the risk of spreading from plant to plant.
Tip: The ideal time of day is the first half of the day. Ideal conditions are dry and sunny weather. Remember to use sharp and clean tools.
How To Do Proper Pruning, Step By Step
1. Examine the tree or shrub and decide which shoots you want to remove. Cut shoots that have been broken by wind or harvesting; shoots that have dried out for some reason; shoots that have dried out; shoots that show signs of disease (such as moniliasis in drupes); and shoots that are lying on the ground (often seen in currants).
2. Hang scarlet ribbons, or beacons, on the shoots and branches you intend to remove. This will make it easier for you to navigate: you will take out exactly what you need and leave behind the lot you originally wanted to keep.
3. Arm yourself with tools and get to work. Shoots less than 0.6 inches (1.5 cm) in diameter can be easily cut with shears; for thicker shoots, use a garden saw. If the branch is huge, prune it from the bottom first, then saw it from the top. This will prevent the branch from hitting the bark when it falls from the tree. If a branch has many shoots and is heavy and needs to be removed, first remove all the shoots and then saw off the entire branch. When sawing it off, you will easily fix it in place.
4. Remove the shoots on the outer lateral shoots that are facing outward, not inward. Otherwise, you will make the situation worse by making the crown thicker. If you need to remove a branch, cut it off completely and do not leave the stump. Try using a separate garden knife to trim the stump in place and make it level.
5. Afterwards, be sure to isolate all cut areas with garden varnish or garden paint to prevent infection from entering the sawn surface.
Care After Hygienic Pruning
- Make sure all the cuts you made are isolated or garden paint.
- After one week, treat woody plants with 3% Bordeaux mixture and shrubs with 1% Bordeaux mixture.
- Wait 1-2 days, then apply autumn fertilizer: wood ash (150-200g under shrubs, 250-300g under trees), calcium superphosphate (15-20g), and potassium sulfate (20-25g under trees, half under shrubs).
- Do not forget to water. in mid-October, water 2-3 buckets under each bush and 5-6 buckets under each tree.
- In November, paint the trunk and the base of the skeleton limbs white.
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