One of the main tasks of a gardener is to retain humus on the land. To do this is easy: you only need to use 2.2 lbs (1 kg) of compost per square meter of soil per year. Today we show you how to make hot compost that effectively kills pathogens and use it in your garden and vegetable garden. We show you what you can use to make compost and how to use it on your plots with our BubGo article.
Benefits of Hot Composting
Compost is an organic fertilizer made of plant residues (leaves, grass, vegetable leaves), food scraps, bark, and pine shavings, mixed with peat, manure, and mineral additives (ash, lime, calcium superphosphate), in a special way.
Materials suitable for composting are generated in garden plots, including kitchen waste, and fermented on-site. A composting area of 3 to 4 m2 is required for every 100 m2 of the garden.
What does hot composting do? It can be filled with beneficial active microorganisms that inhibit pathogenic fungi and bacteria. By using natural fertilizers, you can save money on expensive preparation work.
Tip: Humus is the "immune system" of the soil, protecting it from damage and degradation.
Basic Rules for Composting Waste on the Site
Compost waste only on the surface of the soil. Dangerous decay may occur in unsealed pits. Waste is placed in piles of any length, 3-4 feet (1-1.2 meters) high and 5 feet (1.5 meters) wide. The base of the site should be permeable: it should not be concrete or covered with aluminum foil. The soil (clay) is compacted and covered with a layer of 12 inches (30 cm) of loose absorbent material (peat, sawdust).
On small plots, compost the waste in bags with holes or special composting facilities - e.g. 5 gals (19 l) buckets. Composting areas should be sheltered from the wind and lightly shaded by trees or seed plants (e.g. corn, Jerusalem artichokes, pumpkins, tall flowers, or ornamental shrubs from the south).
What to Use for Hot Composting
1. Dry fraction, which can include sawdust and straw. The recommended percentage is 20-40% (to accelerate the maturation of the compost).
2. Raw fraction can be up to 80%. This includes grass, weeds, and potato peelings, and can also include straw manure (pure manure should not exceed 15% of the total mass of the compost).
3. garden soil or non-acidic high bog peat (up to 10-20%)
4. Meat, fish, and cheese offal are used as additives. Citrus peels slow down the rate of decomposition, banana peels do the opposite. Domestic waste should be immediately covered with soil.
Materials for making compost, such as weeds, can be found in your own garden plot.
Preparing a Hot Compost Pile
The materials used to make compost are chopped and placed in layers, alternating between dry and wet layers and soil. The compost is covered up to avoid drying out, watered, and turned over. Frequent digging speeds up crop maturity.
Tip: A normal "cold" compost pile takes 6-12 months to prepare. In the warm season, fast composting takes 6-8 weeks to mature.
Garden waste containing weed seeds and infested with various diseases must be processed at a temperature of at least 158 °F (70 °C). Only then will the pathogens in the compost die. All parts of the compost pile must be maintained at this temperature. Cover the compost with a perforated film (the film must not be more than 5% perforated) and insulation so that there is no "burn off" in the center of the compost pile and the plant material does not turn gray.
You can use it to insulate.
1. Building insulation.
2. polyethylene foam.
3. Felt, etc.
For the same purpose, water the collar if necessary. The temperature must be distributed evenly. Compost is broken 2-3 times a week. In addition, special microbial preparations are added to accelerate aging. The finished compost has a dark brown color, a loose consistency, and a plant odor.
What kind of organic compost do you use? Please share your experience with other gardeners in the comments!