How do deal with the most common problems in vegetable crops? In order to get a good harvest of tomatoes and cucumbers, you need to closely monitor the condition of your plants, be able to detect fungal or pest infections in your garden, prevent their spread, and take timely protective measures. Today we will discuss pests and diseases of vegetable crops and how to deal with them. In this article, we will discuss fungal or pest infections, in which we will examine with the bubgo.com website how to remove disease vegetable pests for vegetables for a good harvest so that you have the opportunity to make the right treatment of fungal or pest infections.
Rot and Fusarium Solani
Rot can cause wilting and the death of vegetable crops. For example, white rot affects the roots of plants at temperatures of 59-68 °F (15-20°C). Its main symptom is a white mycelium on the roots of the plant.
A. Gray rot
In the form of spots growing on leaves and petioles of Solanaceae. The stems of the shrubs can wilt, especially in cold weather. As a measure to control and prevent the disease.
1. Maintain the temperature of the planting area at about 86 °F (30 °C).
2. spraying the plants with phytolacca and watering the plants with wood mold.
3. Disinfect the soil and destroy plant residues.
B. Fusarium (wilt) eggplant
Dangerous to peppers and eggplants. Drought in soil and air, high soil temperature, heavy soil, and watering with cold water contribute to its development.
Control measures and prevention of Fusarium wilt.
1. observance of crop rotation and sowing of green manure.
2. soil disinfection.
3. loosening of the soil.
4. regular watering with settled water.
Spot and Phytosporosis of Fusarium Spp
Septoria starts as greenish-brown spots on adult plants and young seedlings. The shoots wilt and the fruits turn red prematurely. The following leaves die first, then the whole plant. It is most common in outdoor cultivated Solanaceae.
Microsporidiosis affects all Solanaceae crops. The leaves and fruits of the plant develop spots with concentric circles. Potassium application can help control the disease.
Cladosporiosis is particularly harmful to tomatoes grown in greenhouses. It manifests itself as a velvety, olive-colored coating on the inside of the leaves, which later die. High humidity can spread the disease and greenhouses must be regularly ventilated. Select tomato varieties that are resistant to the disease to prevent its occurrence.
Control measures and prevention.
1. moderate watering and no overgrowth.
2. removal of weeds.
3. spraying with phytochrome.
4. destruction of crop residues.
5. Disinfection of seeds.
Tomatoes grown in greenhouses are susceptible to mealybug disease.
A. Black bacterial spot
Appears as black spots on the fruit with a watery border around them. Over time, they increase in size and become depressed. Black elongated spots appear on petioles, leaves, and stems. The disease affects tomato seedlings in greenhouses 7-10 days after planting. Hot weather, high humidity, dew, and fog can promote the spread of the disease.
Control measures and prevention.
1. seed disinfection.
2. spraying with effective bio fungicides in the early stages of tomato growth.
3. disinfection of greenhouses.
4. destruction of plant debris.
B. Phytophthora rots of the genus Solanum
It manifests itself as subcutaneous brown spots on the fruit and gray spots on the leaves. This disease can destroy up to 90% of the crop. Rain in early August and cool nights can help spread the disease.
Control and preventive measures against phylloxera.
1. use resistant and early maturing varieties.
2. early sowing.
3. early fruit harvesting.
4. sterilization of greenhouses, soil, and seeds.
5. observance of crop rotation.
6. destruction of plant residues.
7. prevention of night-time cooling and rain.
9. Spraying phytochrome and wood mold.
Tip: Late blight develops with frequent rainfall and temperatures of about 64-77 °F (18-25°C).
Bacterial Wilt, Rots, and Eggplant Viruses
Bacterial wilt occurs on tomatoes grown in greenhouses and outdoors. The source of the pest in the soil. Aerial roots form on the stems and the leaves wilt and subsequently die. Control and prevention measures include disinfection and removal of diseased plants.
Tip rot manifests itself as a dry brown spot on the top of the fruit. The disease is particularly harmful in hot years with high temperature and humidity fluctuations, calcium deficiency in the soil, and excess magnesium. Control and prevention measures include crop aeration and application of calcium to the soil.
Viral diseases. In the case of mosaic on the leaves and spot of the fruit at maturity, the plants should be destroyed. Seeds must be disinfected at the sowing stage.
Tip: Use 1 tablespoon of calcium nitrate per square meter during heavy flowering and early fruit set. Tomatoes are affected by bacterial wilt.
Diseases of Solanaceae Fruits
The most common causes of fruit cracking are sudden changes in humidity and lack of calcium (application of calcium nitrate can help). Fruit duplication can occur in the presence of poor pollination and temperature conditions. To prevent the problem, spray the plant with a stimulant during flowering.
Curling of leaves. Possible causes: dry air, high temperatures, simultaneous removal of a large number of leaves and stems - no more than 2-3 leaves should be removed, stems should be removed when they do not exceed 2 inches (5 cm) in length, excess nitrogen (compound fertilizers are best). Only the lower yellow and dirty aubergine leaves should be removed, leaving the top 2 leaves above the brush. A total of 15-16 well-developed leaves should be retained on the shrubs.
Aphids, Spider Mites, and Butterflies in the Aubergine Family
Starting with diseases, we move to insect pests of vegetables. Let's look at ways to control insects that may affect the aubergine family.
Spider mites are particularly active in the greenhouse during hot weather. Eggplants are the most commonly affected species. To control the pests, spray the shrubs with water (if the damage is not too severe) and treat them with biopesticides. Biopesticides and nicotine preparations can also be used to control aphids. Yellow gum traps and biopesticide sprays will help control whiteflies on tomatoes. Moths can simply be washed off with a hose. Against
The beetles and their larvae are collected manually and the beetles and larvae are collected by hand. Beetles and their larvae are collected by hand.
The wide and flat stems of the bush are due to the low air temperature where the crop is growing. In order to bring the cucumber stem back to normal, you should prune it and transform the bush into a good stem.
The plant is weakly branched. The main reasons for poor branching are low nighttime temperatures and lack of nitrogen. To restore cucumber growth at night, keep the temperature in the bed at 64-68 °F (18-20 °C), and add urea (10 g/10 l) and micronutrients to the soil. Poor growth and short internodes can be corrected by increasing the temperature and watering.
Wilt of the plant. If the dampness of the cucumber leaves returns before morning, this indicates a weak root system. In this case, you will need to increase potassium and phosphorus fertilizers. Low soil temperature may be the cause of wilting, so water is the only water that has been heated in the sun. If an infection is suspected, apply a capillary dilator (Trichodermin) to the soil.
Poor cucumber crop. The most common causes of low cucumber yields are nutritional deficiencies and planting low-product varieties. It is recommended to harvest fruit every other day.
A. Lack of a flowering and large number of male flowers
The formation of barren flowers results in elevated garden temperatures - from 95°F (35°C) during the day to as high as 59°F (15°C) at night. To avoid problems, limit watering before heavy flowering. This will promote the formation of female flowers.
1. Phosphorus is being applied to the soil.
2. Thinning is being done to the planted plants.
3. Crop varieties that are sown earlier.
B. Abundant female flowers and lack of ovaries
To solve this problem, it is recommended to involve bees in the planting process. At the sowing stage, select bee-pollinated varieties and hybrids. Feeding plants with foliar applications of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers will help to increase egg production. Add 6-8 g of calcium superphosphate, 6 g of ammonium nitrate, 3 g of potassium chloride, and trace elements per 2.6 gals (10 l) of water. Fertilize plants 2-3 times during flowering and early fruiting.
Tip: A good way to attract bees is to spray the plants with water and honey.
Diseases of Cucumber Fruits
Ugly fruits can form due to high or low temperatures in the seedbed and changes in humidity. In the case of potassium deficiency, the use of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers will help. In addition, parthenocarpic varieties should be sown to avoid problems. Individual parts of the fruit become lighter. Lowering the temperature in the greenhouse and ventilating the cucumber regularly can help solve this problem.
Air pockets within the cucumber fruit are caused by overheating of the plant and excess nitrogen. This problem can be solved by lowering the temperature inside the greenhouse and adding compost to the soil.
Tip: Fruit bitterness can occur due to temperature differences and high humidity. The bitter taste of the fruit is characteristic of some cucumber varieties.
Other Dangerous Cucumber Diseases
What other cucumber diseases the careful gardener needs to know about.
A. White mold appears on cucumbers
Control measures and prevention.
1. Thin out planting.
2. Reduce irrigation.
3. Spray the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate (5 g/10 liters) or copper sulfate (7 g/10 liters).
B. Cucumber periwinkle disease
Another name for the disease is downy mildew. This disease manifests itself as yellow spots on the leaves and a gray coating on the inner side. Control measures and prevention.
1. Spraying with biological agents (Trichodermin).
2. Foliar spraying with nitrocellulose extract (soaked for 2 days, 20 g/10 l), starting with 2-3 affected leaves.
The same measures are applied to other cucumber leaf diseases.
C. cucumber fusarium
Appears as pale discoloration of the leaves and overgrowth of the root neck. It occurs in acidic soils if the plants are watered with cold water or not in crop rotation. Other soil rots occur for the same reason.
Fusarium control measures.
1. Place compost or soil on the roots (to encourage the development of roots over the lesioned area).
2. Cover the bed with sawdust, peat, or non-woven black cloth.
3. change the soil every 4-5 years - at least 2-4 inches (5-10 cm) of its top layer, or sterilize it.
4. Destroy crop residues.
5. apply organic fertilizers. 6.6-22 gals (3-10 kg)/m2 of humus, compost, leaves, peat + 30% of sawdust.
6. Use of biological preparations such as Trichodermin or Gliocladin.
7. Sow green crops or green manure and plow into the soil after harvest.
The greenhouse where cucumbers are grown is fumigated annually with bleach (100 g / 3 liters of water, bear solution, drainage, and spray surface treatment), with sulfur bombs (100 g / 1 cubic meter of air). During fruit growth, the glass (film) is cleaned with water.
Insects That Harm Cucumbers
The most common and dangerous pests include spider mites, aphids, and thrips. The crop can be protected from pests by using biological insecticides (up to 1%), (after 15-20 days) and warm water sprays. Good results can be achieved by using tobacco powder.
What remedies do you use to control pests and diseases in your garden plots? Please share your experiences with other gardeners in the comments!
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